Journal of Modern Oncology

Theoretical and practical publication

Journal of Modern Oncology
(Sovremennaya onkologiya) 

The Journal of Modern Oncology (Sovremennaya Onkologiya) is a peer-reviewed, open-access periodical that since 1999 serves the interests of oncologists.

Peer-reviewed theoretical and practical Journal of Modern Oncology is published since 1999 in 5000 copies, volume of about 80 pages of format А4. The journal has been included into the List of periodical scientific and technical publications issued in the Russian Federation where basic scientific results of doctoral thesis should be published. The territory of dissemination of the journal: Russian Federation, countries of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and other foreign countries. 

This periodical publishes papers of scientists and practitioners-oncologists and clinical pharmacologist not only from Russia as well as from the near and far abroad. The journal publishes articles on modern methods of diagnostics and treatment. The journal is issued regularly with periodicity 4 issues a year. At the present time the journal has acquired wide recognition and popularity among specialists.

The journal is disseminated among doctors and researchers working on oncology, modern methods of diagnostics and treatment, officials and specialists of agencies of healthcare of regions of Russian Federation and other foreign countries, Research Institutes; across medical institutions and research centers; into central libraries; by subscription; into all medical libraries.

The "Journal of Modern Oncology" is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal dedicated to providing the very latest information both in clinical and translational research fields related to a wide range of topics in oncology. 

The journal publishes editorial conference updates, original research, reviews, clinical case reports, commentaries, clinical and laboratory observations by Russian and international authors, pertinent to readers in CIS countries and around the world.

The Journal emphasizes vigorous peer-reviewing and accepts papers in Russian and English with most rapid turnaround time possible from submission to publication. Abstracts for all papers are available in both languages.

Special area focus/ journal sections:

  •  Diagnosis of cancer
  •  Tumors of the respiratory system
  •  Ovarian and cervical tumors
  •  Tumors of the digestive tract
  •  Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy of tumors
  •  Quality of life of patients

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Current Issue

Vol 24, No 3 (2022)

CLINICAL ONCOLOGY

Malignant neoplasm of the bronchi and lung: Russian clinical guidelines
Laktionov K.K., Artamonova E.V., Borisova T.N., Breder V.V., Bychkov I.M., Vladimirova L.I., Volkov N.M., Ergnian S.M., Zhabina A.S., Kononets P.V., Kuzminov A.E., Levchenko E.V., Malikhova O.A., Marinov D.T., Miller S.V., Moiseenko F.V., Mochal’nikova V.V., Novikov S.N., Pikin O.V., Reutova E.V., Rodionov E.O., Sakaeva D.D., Sarantseva K.A., Semenova A.I., Smolin A.V., Sotnikov V.M., Tuzikov S.A., Turkin I.N., Tyurin I.E., Chkhikvadze V.D., Kolbanov K.I., Chernykh M.V., Chernichenko A.V., Fedenko A.A., Filonenko E.V., Nevol’skikh A.A., Ivanov S.A., Khailova Z.V., Gevorkian T.G., Butenko A.V., Gil’mutdinova I.R., Gridneva I.V., Eremushkin M.A., Zernova M.A., Kasparov B.S., Kovlen D.V., Kondrat’eva K.O., Konchugova T.V., Korotkova S.B., Krutov A.A., Obukhova O.A., Ponomarenko G.N., Semiglazova T.I., Stepanova A.M., Khulamkhanova M.M.
Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):269-304
pages 269-304 views
Multidisciplinary interaction of Russian professional communities in oncology
Khatkov I.Е., Andreyashkina I.I., Zelenova E.E., Trotsenko I.D.
Abstract

Background. The effective treatment of oncological diseases requires the proper organization of interdisciplinary communication between specialists. Such an approach should be implemented in educational events organized by professional communities.

Aim. To analyze the effectiveness of interaction between professional oncology communities and expert physicians on the platforms of educational events in Russia as a response to the unprecedented growth of scientific knowledge in oncology.

Materials and methods. We studied educational events programs organized by oncological communities. The keywords of the report titles in 2012 and 2021 and the features of the networking structure of the speakers at the educational events in 2021 were analyzed.

Results. In 2021, there was a significant expansion of the range of topics discussed compared to 2012, while experts began to use the terms "diagnosis", "prevention", "radiotherapy", and others much less frequently. The network structure of professional community interactions and interdisciplinary connections of experts at educational events is heterogeneous; some communities actively cooperate, while others show a closed position. At the level of systematic multidisciplinary expert interaction, there is also an underrepresentation of pathologists, geneticists, and other specialists.

Conclusion. The oncology professional community needs to regularly work on multidisciplinary consolidation of competencies and broad discussion of clinical experience at scientific and educational events.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):305-312
pages 305-312 views
A clinical case of the use of a new selective μ1-opioid analgesic Tafalgin in the treatment of chronic cancer pain
Abuzarova G.R., Sarmanayeva R.R., Alekseeva G.S., Brazhnicova Y.V.
Abstract

In the Russian Federation, tetrapeptide tyrosyl-D-arginyl-phenylalanyl-glycine amide (Tafalgin), a novel analgesic, selective agonist of μ1-opioid receptors, was developed and approved in 2022. The article presents the first experience of the successful use of Tafalgin in treating chronic pain in a cancer patient with poor tolerance to traditional opioids (tramadol, tapentadol, morphine). At baseline, pain severity, according to the Neurological Rating Scale (NRS), was 5–7 points at rest and up to 9 points in motion out of the maximum 10. The combination of 400 mg/day of tramadol with gabapentin and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was ineffective; 400 mg/day of tapentadol in combination with gabapentin and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug also was ineffective. Morphine tablets 60 mg/day were effective (NRS score of 2–3), but unrelenting nausea and vomiting were unmanageable and significantly reduced quality of life. Reducing the dose of oral morphine to 20 mg/day mitigated adverse events but reduced the effectiveness of pain relief (resting NRS score of 4 points). Tafalgin 4 mg subcutaneously BID, then TID reduced the pain severity to an average daily NRS score of 1.22 over the first 3 days of treatment with no adverse events. Sleep, appetite, and physical activity improved. The patient received Tafalgin for 84 days, and she gained 5 kg due to improved nutrition during that time. The drug is comparable in efficacy to morphine and is associated with fewer adverse events. A limitation to widespread use is the availability of a formulation for subcutaneous injection only.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):313-318
pages 313-318 views
Modern approaches in relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma treatment: literature review and own experience
Tsaplina N.S., Valiev T.T., Petrova G.D., Kirgizov K.I., Varfolomeeva S.R.
Abstract

An advance of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnostic and treatment protocols promoted between fatal and high-curative disease. Modern treatment programs can reach many-year survival rate in 80–97% even in patients with advanced (III–IV) HL stages and unfavorable prognostic factors pre- sence. Nevertheless, relapses and refractory (r/r) HL appears in 8–30% patients and depend on treatment scheme, prognostic factors and comorbi- dity. Second-line therapy (ViGePP and ICE) is a common platform for r/r HL treatment in pediatric patients, but results of 3-year relapse-free survival (RFS) not to exceed 70–75%. For increase RFS rate in patients with r/r HL as combinatorial partners to schemes ViGePP and ICE add monoclonal antibodies (brentuximab vedotine) and immune chekpoint inhibitors (nivolumab), cell (auto-/allogenic stem cell transplantation) and genetically engineered (CAR-T) products. In the current issue literature and own experience in r/r HL treatment presented. It is showed, that inclusion a brentuximab vedotine in ViGePP scheme increased 3-year RFS up to 83±11.2%.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):319-324
pages 319-324 views
Radiation-induced soft tissue sarcoma of the neck after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma: a clinical case
Ognerubov N.A., Antipova T.S.
Abstract

Background. Radiation-induced malignancies are one of the long-term complications of radiation therapy, which is widely used to treat some tumors. The latency period before a second tumor develops varies from 3 to 60 years. Epithelial tumors and hemoblastoses occur after low-dose radiation therapy and sarcomas after high-dose radiation therapy.

Aim. To present a case of radiation-induced soft tissue angiosarcoma of the neck after the cure of Hodgkin's disease.

Materials and methods. A 41-year-old patient with Hodgkin's nodular lymphoma with the lymphoid predominance of stage IIIA with involvement of the right cervical and clavicular lymph nodes, mediastinum, and abdominal lymph nodes was followed-up. In 2004 the patient underwent four cycles of polychemotherapy per ABVD regimen followed by radiotherapy of the right cervical and clavicular lymph nodes and mediastinum, with a total focal dose of 40 Gy.

Results. Seventeen years after the treatment for Hodgkin's disease, including radiation therapy, the patient presented with painful swelling of the neck soft tissues in the radiation area with the transition to the anterior thoracic wall and an enlarged cervical lymph node. A lymph node dissection was performed. According to the combined positron emission tomography and X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT), histological and immunohistochemical studies, epithelioid angiosarcoma of soft tissues of the neck and thoracic wall stage IV cT2N1M1G3 with metastases to the skeleton bones, neck lymph nodes, left adrenal gland was established. Surgical treatment was not performed due to advanced disease. The patient received six cycles of polychemotherapy with doxorubicin + ifosfamide. PET/CT confirmed partial tumor regression.

Conclusion. Radiation-induced soft tissue sarcoma is a late iatrogenic complication of radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. The tumor occurred in the radiation area. PET/CT is the method of choice in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of cancer and response to treatment. Chemotherapy, as an option for complex treatment, can achieve adequate disease control when surgery is not feasible.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):325-330
pages 325-330 views
CAR NK-сells for the treatment of hematological malignancies: A review
Gribkova I.V.
Abstract

Hematological malignant neoplasms include more than a hundred different subtypes and account for about 4.8% of all neoplastic diseases in Russia. Despite significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, many of them remain incurable. In recent years, cell-based therapy appears to be a promising approach to the treatment of these incurable hematologic malignancies, showing striking results in various clinical trials. The most studied and advanced cell therapy is the therapy with T-lymphocytes modified with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). However, although the US Food and Drug Administration has approved CAR T cells for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, significant problems remain in terms of production, cost, and serious side effects. An alternative to the use of T cells can be the use of innate immune cells, in particular natural killer cells (NK), which have a high antitumor potential. Recent studies have shown the antitumor efficacy of a therapy that uses genetically modified natural killer cells – CAR NK cells. The purpose of this review was to describe and systematize the experience of using CAR NK cells for the treatment of hematological neoplasms. The review presents the advantages and disadvantages of this method, as well as the problems that still have to be solved for its widespread introduction into clinical practice.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):331-335
pages 331-335 views
The surgical treatment of locally advanced angiosarcoma of the anterior mediastinum. A clinical case
Novikov D.V., Chekini A.K., Avturkhanov T.M., Mkrtumyan R.A.
Abstract

Tumors of the mediastinum is a collective term that includes neoplasms of various degrees of malignancy, different morphogenesis, originating from heterogeneous tissues and combined into one nosological form according to anatomical localization. Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor originating from a vessel wall. In the general structure of sarcomas, its frequency is estimated at 1%. The tumor is characterized by an aggressive course, local recurrence, hematogenous metastasis, poor sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgery remains the main treatment for angiosarcomas. The article presents a clinical case. A 55-year-old patient has multiple primary malignant neoplasms: cancer of the body of the uterus pT1aN0M0 IA stage. Surgical treatment from 12.15.2020 – panhysterectomy; angiosarcoma of the anterior mediastinum with lesions of the manubrium, body of the sternum and the 1st rib on the left, invasion into the left brachiocephalic vein with the formation of a tumor thrombus in it, growing into the upper lobe of the left lung, T3N0M0, G1. Surgical treatment from 08.12.2021 – resection of the manubrium and body of the sternum with resection of the anterior segments I, II, III ribs on both sides, resection of the left brachiocephalic vein, removal of an anterior mediastinal tumor, atypical resection of the upper lobe of the left lung en bloc, reconstruction of the sternum and ribs with an individual titanium 3D prosthesis. The patient was discharged from the hospital in a satisfactory condition.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):336-339
pages 336-339 views
The mechanism of action of different generations of EGFR-inhibitors in malignant lung tumors. Literature review and data synthesis
Nasretdinov A.F., Menshikov K.V., Sultanbaev A.V., Musin S.I., Sultanbaeva N.I., Men'shikova I.A.
Abstract

Knowledge of the molecular characteristics of the progression of non-small cell lung tumors currently provides the patient with the best treatment options. One of the most well-known and studied genetic abnormalities is a mutation in the EGFR gene, which makes the tumor sensitive to therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In the conditions of the existence of several therapeutic options at once, it is required to know not only the results of clinical trials, but also the fundamental features of the mechanisms of action of a particular drug. The article contains a literature review, presenting the features of the functioning of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), the mechanisms of action of EGFR inhibitors of different generations (erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, osimertinib), generalization and analysis of the main differences between them.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):340-344
pages 340-344 views
Genetic markers associated with resistance to radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer patients: Prospective cohort study
Denisenko N.P., Shuev G.N., Mukhamadiev R.H., Perfilieva O.M., Kazakov R.E., Kachanova A.A., Milyutina O.I., Konenkova O.V., Ryzhkin S.A., Ivashchenko D.V., Bure I.V., Kirienko S.L., Zhmaeva E.M., Mirzaev K.B., Ametov A.S., Poddubnaya I.V., Sychev D.A.
Abstract

Background. The indication for radiotherapy in oncological practice are metastases of differentiated thyroid cancer after thyroidectomy, the presence of distant metastases, or stage N1b, or negative dynamics of blood thyroglobulin levels after thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. The mechanism of action of radiotherapy is based on provoking double-stranded DNA breaks. It is important to study the role of polymorphisms of NFKB1, ATM, ATG16L2 and ATG10 genes, products of which are involved in the processes of DNA damage response pathway and autophagy, in the formation of resistance to radioiodine therapy of thyroid cancer patients.

Aim. To examine the association between NFKB1, ATM, ATG16L2 and ATG10 polymorphisms and resistance to radioiodine therapy in thyroid cancer patients.

Materials and methods. The study included 181 patients (37 men, 144 women; mean age 53.5±15.7 years) with histologically confirmed thyroid cancer and a history of thyroidectomy who received radioiodine therapy. Carriage of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (rs230493) NFKB1, (rs11212570) ATM, (rs10898880) ATG16L2 and (rs10514231, rs1864183, rs4703533) ATG10 was determined by real-time PCR using TaqMan™ kits.

Results. Among 181 patients, resistance to radioiodine therapy was observed in 11 (6.1%) cases. No significant associations between the individual polymorphisms and resistance to radioiodine therapy were obtained, p>0.05. Haplotype analysis showed that carriage of the C-C ATG10 rs10514231-rs1864183 haplotype was associated with an increased risk of developing resistance to radioiodine therapy, p=0.04.

Conclusion. Further studies on large samples of radioiodine therapy-resistant patients using whole-genome sequencing methods are required to specify the role of genetic factors in the response to 131I therapy.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):345-350
pages 345-350 views
Classification of breast cancer subtypes based on RNA profiling and immunohistochemical methods: clinical and biological aspects: A review
Imyanitov E.N.
Abstract

Transcriptome analysis provided a tool to identify expression subtypes of breast cancer (BC). A significant part of BCs are carcinomas that differ in the expression of luminal mammary ductal epithelium markers and estrogen signaling cascade genes (luminal subtypes A and B). Another group of BCs is characterized by the expression of ductal basal lining genes. Another subtype of BC has genes typically expressed in HER2-induced tumors. Immunohistochemical (IHC) examination is reliable in identifying the tumor subtype. Tumors with high IHC-expression of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors with no signs of HER2 gene activation and low proliferative activity should be referred to as luminal type A. The absence of ER, PR, and HER2 expression should be considered a sign of basal tumor subtype. However, the IHC classification cannot reliably distinguish HER2-positive tumors and HER2-enriched subtypes, which do not reflect the biological features of some BCs. For instance, a significant number of ER-positive breast cancer patients included in the MONALEESA ribociclib clinical study had HER2-subtype transcriptional signatures in the absence of HER2 receptor expression, and these were the ones who demonstrated a pronounced response to treatment.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):351-354
pages 351-354 views
The analysis of the relationship between transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of breast cancer: retrospective cohort study
Chulkova S.V., Sholokhova E.N., Poddubnaya I.V., Stilidi I.S., Tupitsyn N.N.
Abstract

Background. Transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) expression has been identified in a number of malignant tumors. It is noted that its overexpression gives growth advantages to cancer cells. Estimation of transferrin receptor expression in breast cancer (BC) might be an important component in disease prognosis, choice of treatment, also might be an attractive target for targeted therapy.

Aim. To evaluate the expression of TfR1 by BC cells and to study its relationship with the clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of the tumor.

Materials and methods. This study included 82 patients with BC who received treatment at the Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology (Moscow). The expression of TfR1 on primary tumor cells was studied, the relationship of TfR1 with clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics of BC was analyzed. Immunophenotyping of the primary tumor was performed by the immunohistochemical method (immunofluorescent staining) on cryostat sections. Antibodies to CD71, CD95, CD54, CD29, MUC1, Pgp170 were used. The reaction was evaluated using a luminescent microscope (AXIOSKOP, Germany). The study was dominated by patients with stage IIB – 54% and IIIB – 21%. Infiltrative ductal BC was diagnosed in 67% (n=55) of patients, infiltrative-lobular – in 22% (n=18) of cases, other types – in 11.0% (n=9).

Results. BC cells expressed TfR1 in most cases (64.4%; n=61). A combination of TfR1 monomorphic expression with MUC1 monomorphic expression (74.4%; n=47) was noted. CD29 is presented both mosaic (38.7%) and monomorphic (51.6%). The Pgp170 antigen was monomorphically observed in 27.5% of cases. As the proportion of TfR+ cells increased, the expression frequency of the adhesion molecule CD54 increased from 10.5 to 33.3%, a positive correlation was established (r=0.293; p=0.008). In the group with TfR1 monomorphic expression, the frequency of tumors expressing the CD95 apoptosis molecule decreased: 25.0% vs 13% (p=0.042).

Conclusion. BC cells overexpress TfR1. TfR1 expression is associated with tumor immunophenotype.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):355-360
pages 355-360 views
Analysis of the complications of endocrine therapy with tamoxifen in breast cancer: clinical and pharmacogenetic aspects. Prospective pharmacogenetic cohort study
Savelyeva M.I., Golubenko E.O., Sozaeva Z.A., Poddubnaya I.V., Korennaya V.V.
Abstract

Background. Tamoxifen is the drug of choice in ER-positive breast cancer (BC) therapy for perimenopausal women and one of the endocrine therapy options for menopausal patients. The pharmacological effect of tamoxifen can be influenced by the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein transporters (Pg), and the genes encoding them have broad polymorphism, affecting serum concentrations of active metabolites. This article presents the overall results of a prospective population-based study of the clinical significance of genetic polymorphism of tamoxifen metabolic enzymes and transporters in breast cancer patients after radical treatment receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy with tamoxifen in outpatient settings during 2018-2019. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education.

Aim. To analyze the clinical presentation of endocrine therapy with tamoxifen in the adjuvant regimen and to assess the association of polymorphisms of genes encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes and drug transporter proteins with adverse events in BC patients.

Materials and methods. One hundred and four women with stage I-III luminal breast cancer receiving adjuvant tamoxifen were examined for the presence of CYP2D6, CYP2C, and the following CYP3A gene polymorphisms: CYP2D6*4, CYP3A5*3, CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, as well as the ABCB1 gene polymorphic marker (C3435T) encoding the P-glycoprotein. The allelic variants were identified using the real-time polymerase chain reaction; the test was performed in the Research Center of the Russian Medical Academy of Continuing Professional Education. The study material was buccal epithelium (double sampling) taken after informed consent signing.

Results. Association analysis showed the association of different genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, and ABCB1 with tamoxifen adverse drug reactions, indicating the clinical significance of these polymorphisms.

Conclusion. With the implementation of genetic testing of the studied polymorphisms into the routine clinical practice of oncologists prescribing tamoxifen and gynecologists involved in the follow-up of breast cancer patients receiving endocrine therapy in the adjuvant mode, there will be an opportunity for more effective and safer pharmacotherapy.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):361-367
pages 361-367 views
Triple-negative breast cancer: new options for systemic targeted therapy. A review
Andreev D.A., Zavyalov A.A.
Abstract

Background. In 15-20% of patients, breast cancer is characterized by the absence or negligible expression in malignant cells of molecular therapeutic receptor targets of three key types: estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (triple negative breast cancer – TNBC). At the 2021 conferences of the American and European Societies of Clinical Oncology (ASCO and ESMO) and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS), held from December 7 to 10, important advances in new approaches to the treatment of heterogeneous TNBC cohort were announced.

Aim. To find and summarize the most striking results of clinical studies on new treatment options for TNBC patients based on the SABCS 2021.

Materials and methods. We searched the databases of the digital medical education platform MEDtalks (Hilversum, The Netherlands) and the PubMed/Medline database and analyzed the results published in 2021-2022.

Results. We systematized some results of clinical studies on drug therapy in patients with TNBC, discussed at SABCS 2021 (December 7-10, San Antonio, USA). There are now promising results from innovative clinical studies worldwide to identify the optimal approach to the selection of differentiated targeted and immunotherapies for the treatment of TNBC patients: OlympiA, KEYNOTE-522, cTRAK TN Phase II, KEYNOTE-355, NIMBUS, TROPION Phase I study.

Conclusion. Considering the molecular and histological heterogeneity of TNBC, it is reasonable to identify subgroups of patients with some quantitative and qualitative clinical characteristics for further identification of effective personalized treatment regimens. Additional clinical studies and multivariate analysis of data in the subgroups of patients with TNBC, as well as individualized treatment cases, using current methodological tools will contribute to solving the issues in the management of this category of patients.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):368-372
pages 368-372 views
Antitumor response and quality of life: is there a need to sacrifice? Clinical observation: long-term and safe control of the disease using a combination of ribociclib with letrozole. Case report
Grechukhina K.S., Vorontsova K.A., Filonenko D.A., Tyutyunnik P.S., Shchadrova V.V., Zhukova L.G.
Abstract

Metastatic luminal B HER2-negative breast cancer (HR+/HER2- mBC) occupies a leading place in the global structure of morbidity and mortality among women. The current gold standard of first-line treatment is the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with aromatase inhibitors, among which ribociclib with letrozole is distinguished. According to the MONALEESA-2 study, the addition of ribociclib to letrozole significantly increased the median overall survival to 63.9 months, reducing the risk of death by 24%. The safety profile of the combination is manageable, and the development of adverse events led to the interruption of therapy only in 7.5% of cases. A study of the actual clinical practice of CompLEEment-1 also confirmed the safety and effectiveness of the combination. Maintaining and improving the quality of life is one of the main tasks in the treatment of patients with HR+/HER2- mBC. According to the MONALEESA-2 study, the addition of ribociclib significantly affects the maintenance of quality of life and leads to a decrease in the intensity of pain syndrome. The published data allowed us to assign a combination of ribociclib and letrozole 4 points on the ESMO-MCBS scale. The safety of long-term use of the combination in the first line of treatment illustrated by clinical observation. The patient's progression-free survival during therapy was 40 months, which significantly exceeds the data of the MONALEESA-2 and CompLEEment-1 studies. The maximum effect (partial response according to RECIST 1.1 -40%) achieved after 24 weeks and persisted for 24 months. Clinically, the patient noted a decrease in the severity of the pain syndrome after 8 weeks of therapy. Against the background of therapy, it was possible to maintain the quality of life without sacrificing antitumor efficacy.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):373-379
pages 373-379 views
Experience in the treatment of radioinduced angiosarcoma of the breast in a patient with primary multiple lesions of the breast and bladder. Case report
Semenov E.V., Gasymly D.D., Zyuzyukina A.V., Zukov R.A.
Abstract

Among the multiple primary malignant tumors, breast cancer is the most common and in most cases it is combined with the second mammary gland, uterine body, stomach, colon, skin and ovary. Breast angiosarcoma is a very rare disease with unfavorable prognosis. Radiation therapy to the area of the breast is considered to be the main risk factor for the radiation-induced angiosarcoma. Diagnosis is based on the clinical aspect, the results of morphological and immunohistochemical findings. There are no uniform standards for the treatment of this pathology; a surgical method, systemic therapy, and radiation therapy are used. The article presents a clinical case of a female patient born in 1952, who was diagnosed with synchronous multiple primary cancer in 2014: stage 2A left breast cancer (cT2N0M0); bladder cancer – stage I (cT1cN0M0). After the complex treatment, the patient received adjuvant endocrine therapy with Tamoxifen. In December 2018, single bluish formations appeared in the area of the postoperative scar, followed by a rapid growth of formations on the skin within a month, with a tendency to merge and necrosis. The patient was sent for biopsy of the formations with suspected recurrence of the disease. Immunomorphological patterns correspond to the angiosarcoma in the skin of the mammary gland. A simple mastectomy was performed. After 3 months, growth of angiomyosarcoma in the soft tissues of the anterior chest wall continued. Excision of the tumor in the soft tissues of the chest was performed and the patient underwent postoperative course of radiation therapy with a single focal dose (SFD) 2.5 Gy, total boost isodose of 50 Gy. At follow-up examinations held from January to December 2021, there is no evidence for continued growth and recurrence of the disease. The presented clinical observation demonstrates the experience of diagnostics and treatment of radiation-induced angiosarcoma in the patient with multiple primary synchronous lesions of the breast and bladder.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):380-383
pages 380-383 views
Diagnostic potential of endosonography in primary and secondary esophageal tumors: retrospective study
Khalaev Z.V., Suleymanov E.A., Malikhova O.A., Tumanyan A.O., Krylovetskaia M.A., Kontsevaya A.Y., Salimova A.A., Makarova M.V.
Abstract

Aim. To determine the diagnostic value of endosonography in primary and secondary esophageal tumors.

Materials and methods. Between 2018 and 2022, 118 patients with primary and secondary esophageal changes were managed at the Blokhin National Medical Research Center for Oncology. Primary changes imply invasion of the esophagus directly by a tumor, secondary changes mean invasion of the esophageal wall by a tumor from outside, and the transition of a tumor from the stomach to the esophagus.

Results. All patients had esophagogastroduodenoscopy combined with endoscopic ultrasound performed. Besides estimating the tumor invasion depth in the esophageal wall and the possible involvement of other structures at a distance up to 5 cm from the esophagus, the proximal margin of the tumor was examined. According to esophagogastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound examination, the difference in the proximal margin was not more than 1.0 cm. The difference in results may be due to the submucosal nature of tumor growth.

Conclusion. Endoscopic ultrasound examination is the most important diagnostic method to determine the proximal margin of the primary and secondary esophageal tumors and evaluate the degree of invasion into the esophageal wall, which is an essential factor for the treatment choice.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):384-388
pages 384-388 views
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for treatment patients with rectal cancer with adverse prognostic factors: A review
Nevolskikh A.A., Avdeenko V.A., Belokhvostova A.S., Mikhaleva Y.Y., Pochuev T.P., Zibirov R.F., Ivanov S.A., Kaprin A.D.
Abstract

Rectal cancer (RC) is one of the leading tumor location in the structure of the incidence of malignant neoplasms in the Russian Federation and the world. And the standard approach to the treatment of patients with locally advanced forms of RC is preoperative chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) with delayed surgery. The use of such sort of approach in the recent decades has led to the reduction of the frequency of local recurrence up to 10% and even less. However, approximately a third of patients die of distant metastases. In this regard, one of the main tasks in the treatment of patients with locally advanced forms of RC with adverse prognostic factors is the prevention of distant metastasis formation. Early initiation of the systemic therapy before surgery is aimed at solving this issue. Conducting neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) instead of CRT in RC treatment allows to avoid radiation reactions and injuries, occurring in some patients. Two-component oxaliplatin-containing regimens are the most well studied types of NCT in the treatment of patients with non-metastatic RC. In this connection, despite the differences in the treatment regimens and the number of cycles, a good tolerability of the method as well as no effect on the frequency of postoperative complications and in general a satisfactory results comparable to the effects of CRT were observed. The use of NCT in combination with targeted treatment modalities as well as three-component chemotherapy regimens are promising and encouraging treatment options for patients with RC with adverse prognostic factors.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):389-398
pages 389-398 views
Abdominal ultrasound and alpha-foetoprotein for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (Russian Translation of Cochrane Plain Language Summary (PLS))
Abstract

This publication is the Russian translation of the Plain Language Summary (PLS) of the Cochrane Systematic Review: Colli A, Nadarevic T, Miletic D, Giljaca V, Fraquelli M, Štimac D, Casazza G. Abdominal ultrasound and alpha-foetoprotein for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in adults with chronic liver disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021;4(4):CD013346. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013346.pub2

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):399-400
pages 399-400 views
Which faecal blood test is more accurate in detecting bowel cancer and large polyps in population screening? (Russian Translation of Cochrane Plain Language Summary (PLS))
Abstract

This publication is the Russian translation of the Plain Language Summary (PLS) of the Cochrane Systematic Review: Grobbee EJ, Wisse PHA, Schreuders EH, van Roon A, van Dam L, Zauber AG, Lansdorp-Vogelaar I, Bramer W, Berhane S, Deeks JJ, Steyerberg EW, van Leerdam ME, Spaander MCW, Kuipers EJ. Guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests versus faecal immunochemical tests for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022;6(6):CD009276. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009276.pub2

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2022;24(3):400-401
pages 400-401 views


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