Journal of Modern Oncology

Theoretical and practical publication

Journal of Modern Oncology
(Sovremennaya onkologiya) 

The Journal of Modern Oncology (Sovremennaya Onkologiya) is a peer-reviewed, open-access periodical that since 1999 serves the interests of oncologists.

Peer-reviewed theoretical and practical Journal of Modern Oncology is published since 1999 in 5000 copies, volume of about 80 pages of format А4. The journal has been included into the List of periodical scientific and technical publications issued in the Russian Federation where basic scientific results of doctoral thesis should be published. The territory of dissemination of the journal: Russian Federation, countries of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and other foreign countries. 

This periodical publishes papers of scientists and practitioners-oncologists and clinical pharmacologist not only from Russia as well as from the near and far abroad. The journal publishes articles on modern methods of diagnostics and treatment. The journal is issued regularly with periodicity 4 issues a year. At the present time the journal has acquired wide recognition and popularity among specialists.

The journal is disseminated among doctors and researchers working on oncology, modern methods of diagnostics and treatment, officials and specialists of agencies of healthcare of regions of Russian Federation and other foreign countries, Research Institutes; across medical institutions and research centers; into central libraries; by subscription; into all medical libraries.

The "Journal of Modern Oncology" is an open access, peer-reviewed online journal dedicated to providing the very latest information both in clinical and translational research fields related to a wide range of topics in oncology. 

The journal publishes editorial conference updates, original research, reviews, clinical case reports, commentaries, clinical and laboratory observations by Russian and international authors, pertinent to readers in CIS countries and around the world.

The Journal emphasizes vigorous peer-reviewing and accepts papers in Russian and English with most rapid turnaround time possible from submission to publication. Abstracts for all papers are available in both languages.

Special area focus/ journal sections:

  •  Diagnosis of cancer
  •  Tumors of the respiratory system
  •  Ovarian and cervical tumors
  •  Tumors of the digestive tract
  •  Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy of tumors
  •  Quality of life of patients


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Current Issue

Vol 25, No 2 (2023)


Updates in urologic oncology guidelines: renal cell carcinoma. A review
Volkova M.I., Nosov D.A., Alekseev B.Y.

The results of several completed studies have led to a change in approaches to treating renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and are reflected in the clinical guidelines of the Ministry of Health of Russia and the practical guidelines of the Russian Society of Clinical Oncology (RUSSCO). The article presents the key points of these updates.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):151-154
pages 151-154 views
Updates in urologic oncology guidelines: urothelial carcinoma. A review
Volkova M.I., Alekseev B.Y., Gladkov O.A.

Guidelines for drug therapy of urothelial cancer (UC) have had several significant updates since new data from clinical studies became available and due to updates of labels for certain drugs approved for this indication in the Russian Federation. Opinions of expert panels developing clinical guidelines of the Ministry of Health of Russia and practical guidelines of the Russian Society of Clinical Oncology (RUSSCO) were divided over several positions. The article presents the key points of these updates.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):155-158
pages 155-158 views
Pomalidomide in the management of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: A review
Semochkin S.

Pomalidomide is a third-generation immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) that has taken an important place in the management of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) including in patients with resistance to lenalidomide (R). Synergism of antitumor activity was obtained by combining pomalidomide with dexamethasone (Pd), proteasome inhibitors (PIs), and monoclonal antibodies directed against CD38 and SLAMF7 receptors. The dose-limiting toxicity of pomalidomide is neutropenia (48–60% grade ≥3 for a dose of 4 mg/day). Overcoming resistance to lenalidomide is seen as a key benefit of pomalidomide in the development of triplets that can be used in 2nd and subsequent lines of RRMM treatment. In OPTIMISMM study (phase III), 70% of patients were lenalidomide resistant. Randomization was performed on VPd (bortezomib-Pd) and Vd (bortezomib, dexamethasone) therapy. Vd as control was implemented in two related phases III trials ENDEAVOR (carfilzomib, dexamethasone) and CASTOR (daratumumab-Vd). For patients with resistance to lenalidomide, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.5 mon for VPd in OPTIMISMM; 9.3 mon in CASTOR (resistant to R 21%) for DVd, and 9.3 mon in ENDEAVOR (21%) for Kd - 8.6 mon. The ICARIA-MM study (phase 3; resistance to R – 94%) demonstrated the benefit of incorporating isutaximab into the triplet (median PFS 11.1 and 5.9 mon for Isa-Pd and Pd respectively; p<0.0001). Similar data were obtained in the ELOQUENT-3 study (phase II; resistance to R - 90%) for elotuzumab (10.3 and 4.7 mon for EPd and Pd respectively; p=0.008). In the APOLLO study (phase III; resistance - 80%), the efficacy of the triplet with daratumumab was confirmed (12.4 and 6.9 mon for DPd and Pd respectively; p = 0.0018). In the present review, the focus is on the consideration of treatment regimens that are of relevance to Russian clinical practice.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):159-167
pages 159-167 views
Heterogeneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: accurate diagnosis as a key to successful therapy. A review
Babicheva L.G., Poddubnaya I.V.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common variant of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and accounts for about 1/3 of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in Western countries and about 40% of B-cell tumors worldwide. Correct diagnosis of clinically distinct subgroups of aggressive mature B-cell lymphomas is crucial for the choice of adequate treatment. Currently, the identification of DLBCL subtype depends on a combination of morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic/molecular features. The classification covers the most common unspecified variant of DLBCL, also referred to as "not otherwise specified" (NOS), and a number of other rare forms. Over the past two decades, DLBCL NOS which accounts for more than 80% of all cases, has been the subject of a growing number of molecular studies that have identified prognostic factors that are being actively introduced into real-world clinical practice. Only the integration of morphological, immunohistochemical and molecular features of DLBCL will lead to the achievement of the long-term goal of curing the majority of patients with minimal or no toxic manifestations with the aid of personalized healthcare.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):168-177
pages 168-177 views
Challenges and perspectives of first-line therapy in patients with diffuse B-cell lymphoma: A review
Babicheva L.G., Poddubnaya I.V.

The neoplasm we refer to as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) consists of many different subtypes that should not be subject to a single standardized treatment. Critical at the diagnostic stage is the identification of rare (5–10%) but extremely aggressive variants – high grade B-cell lymphomas with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 double-hit (DH) or triple-hit (TH) rearrangement, in which intensive chemoimmunotherapy programs should be applied. The main and most frequent variant of the heterogeneous group of B-cell lymphomas discussed in this publication is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (NOS). Two immunohistochemical subtypes of DLBCL NOS are distinguished, GCB and non-GCB. According to cell of origin, the DLBCL NOS is divided into GCB, ABC, and an unclassified (U) subtypes. In addition, DLBCL NOS includes MYC and BCL2 double-expressor lymphoma (DEL), which is not a unique biological entity, occurs in both GCB and non-GCB subtypes of DLBCL, and is associated with a worse prognosis. Over the past two decades, DLBCL NOS, which accounts for more than 80% of all cases, has been the subject of a growing number of molecular studies that have identified prognostic factors that are being actively introduced into real-world clinical practice. Since the turn of the century, the R-CHOP regimen has been considered the most frequent first line therapy approach for DLBCL NOS, achieving long-term remissions in 60–70% of patients. The worst outcomes when using R-CHOP are recorded in groups at high risk of progression according to the International Prognostic Index (IPI – 3–5), as well as in the presence of unfavorable molecular genetic characteristics of the tumor, such as DEL or ABC subtype of DLBCL NOS. These patient populations benefited the most from the inclusion of polatuzumab vedotin in the initial therapy regimen (Pola-R-CHP). This approach reduced the risk of progression and death in patients with high-risk DLBCL by 30%, reducing the need for second-line therapy by 34%, which can be considered a breakthrough in the last 20 years of searching for improving the "gold standard" of first-line therapy and potentially defining a new standard of therapy for primary patients with high-risk DLBCL.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):178-184
pages 178-184 views
Radiation induced skin reactions in primary cutaneous lymphoma patients: A review
Ilyin N.V., Vinogradova Y.N., Zaslavskiy D.V., Maria M.I.

This review highlights the issue of radiation-induced skin reactions (RISR), emphasizes the high frequency of RISR in patients with cutaneous lymphomas undergoing radiation therapy, and analyzes numerous pathological processes that occur in the skin as a result of ionizing radiation exposure. The review systematically examines external and internal factors influencing the development of RISR, compares diagnostic methods, discusses preventive measures and treatments for radiation dermatitis, and describes the mechanisms of action for drugs used in RISR prophylaxis and treatment. RISR remains a significant problem in radiation therapy, characterized by a high frequency, a wide range of clinical manifestations, and an impact on patients’ quality of life. The mechanisms, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of RISR are considered.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):185-189
pages 185-189 views
Breast cancer: genetic personal risk factors: A review
Zolotykh M.A., Bilyalov A.I., Nesterova A.I., Gimranov A.M., Filina J.V., Rizvanov A.A., Miftakhova R.R.

Determination of cancer risk factors allow us to develop diagnostics tests that improved identification and reduced the rate of mortality of most frequent cancer diseases including breast cancer, prostate cancer, gastrointestinal tumors. Today individual risk of breast cancer considers personal genetics, medical history of patient, lifestyle, and a number of additional factors. Calculation of the first mathematical models for breast cancer risk assessment included anthropometric data, hormonal status, and family history of cancer. The discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes’ role in the development of breast cancer and the accumulation of data from population studies contributed to the introduction of the genetic component into mathematical models. The trend of the last decade is the integration of the polygenic component into the scheme for calculating the individual risk of breast cancer. In this review, we have analyzed existing models, assessed their relevance for certain groups of patients, studied the trends in the development of methods for molecular genetic diagnosis of breast cancer and determining the personal risk of developing the disease.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):190-198
pages 190-198 views
The effect of hormonal contraception on the risk of breast cancer: A review
Iurova M.V., Mezhevitinova E.A., Yakushevskaya O.V., Rodionov V.V., Prilepskaya V.N.

Hormonal-induced changes in the breast occur due to both endogenous and exogenous sex hormones. For two decades, the safety of hormonal contraceptives (HC) in terms of their effect on breast tissue has been discussed in the literature. The pleiotropic effect of the components in the combined HC, on the one hand, prevents unwanted pregnancy; on the other hand, they help to maintain good health of women of childbearing age due to a wide range of non-contraceptive effects (eliminating hyperandrogenism manifestations, reducing the pain severity during menstruation and the menstrual blood loss, the risk of recurrence of functional ovarian cysts, oncoprotective effect due to reducing the risk of ovarian, endometrial, colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancer). However, according to epidemiological studies, in addition to the beneficial effects, there are risks that require further study, including the controversial impact of HC on the oncogenesis and progression of breast cancer. In addition, some young women with breast cancer experience induced menopause after antitumor treatment. However, amenorrhea is not a marker for complete disabling of ovarian function, and pregnancy is associated with a risk of disease recurrence or progression. Therefore, in each case, it is necessary to determine the need for an effective and safe method of contraception.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):199-207
pages 199-207 views
Interrelation of HLA-I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules with clinical and morphological signs of breast cancer: A retrospective cohort study
Chulkova S.V., Sholokhova E.N., Poddubnaya I.V., Stilidi I.S., Burov D.A., Tupitsyn N.N.

Background. For a long time, interest in the HLA peptide complex is unabated, the clinical significance of which in cancer is still the subject of intense debate. Through the presentation of HLA antigens, tumor cells become available for recognition and destruction by effector cells of the immune system. A detailed analysis of the expression status of HLA molecules by breast cancer cells is of both scientific and important practical value. It can provide additional information about the immune system to determine a further strategy for treating breast cancer.

Aim. To evaluate the frequency of expression of HLA-I and class II molecules by breast cancer cells and to determine its relationship with the morphological and clinical characteristics of the tumor.

Materials and methods. This study included 82 patients with breast cancer who received treatment at the Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology. Immunophenotyping of the primary tumor was performed by the immunohistochemical method (immunofluorescent staining) on cryostat sections. The reaction was evaluated using a ZEISS luminescent microscope (AXIOSKOP, Germany). The frequency of expression of HLA-I and class II molecules was studied depending on the clinical and morphological characteristics of breast cancer.

Results. It was found that the frequency of expression of HLA I and II class molecules by breast cancer cells differed. HLA class I antigens are preserved in almost half of the cases 54.5%, while HLA class II antigens are preserved in 22.0%. Associations of molecules of the major histocompatibility complex with clinical and morphological signs of breast cancer were revealed. The frequency of HLA-DR negative cases increases in the stage advanсed (p=0.029). The frequency of monomorphic expression of HLA class II with T1 tumor was 50% versus 0% at T4 tumor (p=0.032). Estrogen receptor-negative tumors in most cases did not express HLA-II class (85.2% vs 64%; p=0.034). No connection with other clinical and morphological features of the tumor has been established.

Conclusion. In most cases of breast cancer, the expression of HLA class II molecules is lost, while the expression of HLA class I is preserved in half of the cases. Monomorphic expression of HLA class II is characteristic of the early stage of breast cancer development and predominantly of receptor-positive tumors.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):208-213
pages 208-213 views
Rare histological subtypes of bladder cancer in clinical practice: a case series
Paychadze A.A., Golubeva S.A., Kamalova M.A.

Non-urothelial tumors account for less than 5% of all bladder malignant neoplasms. The most common non-urothelial tumor is squamous cell carcinoma, often found in the Middle East (about 30% of all cases of bladder cancer – BC) due to the spread of schistosomiasis. The glandular type is the second most common non-urothelial morphological variant; it includes 5 tumor subtypes (intestinal, mucinous, signet ring cell, mixed, and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified). The neuroendocrine variant is divided into 4 subgroups (small cell, large cell, highly differentiated, and paragangliomas), of which small cell is the most common, though still rare, and accounts for only about 1% of all BCs. The article presents the clinical cases of three rare BC subtypes: squamous cell, glandular, and neuroendocrine. In the first clinical case, a radical cure of a patient with signet ring cell BC was described: at the first stage, the bladder, prostate, and vesicles were removed with a cystoplasty using a small intestine segment according to the Bricker technique with an extended pelvic lymph node dissection; the second stage included 8 courses of adjuvant drug treatment according to the XELOX regimen. In the second clinical case, the treatment of the metastatic neuroendocrine BC was described using the following regimens: EP (etoposide + cisplatin), carboplatin + irinotecan, GemOx (gemcitabine + oxaliplatin). The third clinical case described a patient with bladder squamous cell carcinoma. The stage I treatment was based on the GC regimen; at stage II, the bladder, prostate, and vesicles were removed with intestinal orthotopic cystoplasty and extended lymph node dissection; due to progression revealed during the follow-up examination, the patient received another GC course. Although non-urothelial BCs are very rare, studies are currently being conducted on the effectiveness of immunotherapy and targeted therapy in treating this cohort of patients.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):229-235
pages 229-235 views
Safety and toxicity of cabozantinib monotherapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a Russian multicenter observational study
Volkova M.I., Kalpinskiy A.S., Menshikov K.V., Gorbuleva L.V., Sultanbaev A.V., Evsyukova O.I., Meltonian V.R., Mishugin S.V., Maturov M.R., Olshanskaya A.S., Shemetov D.I., Sannikova T.A., Makhnutina M.V., Filipieva M.A., Gaijsina E.A., Ovchinnikova E.G., Mailian O.A., Alekseev B.Y., Matveev V.B.

Aim. To assess the safety and to analyze an influence of cabozantinib monotherapy toxicity on treatment efficacy in unselected Russian patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).

Materials and methods. Medical data of 92 patients with verified mRCC were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 56 (19–79) years, most of them - 60 (65.2%) were of male gender. Twenty five (27.2%) persons had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS). At the time of cabozantinib monotherapy start 5 (5.4%) patients had favorable, 54 (58.7%) – intermediate, and 33 (35.9%) – unfavorable prognosis by International Metastatic Renal Cancer Database Consortium (IMDC) model. Eighty-three (90.2%) patients were pretreated, including 76 (82.6%) patients who previously received anti-angiogenic agents. All patients were administered with cabozantinib monotherapy (60 mg/day); dose adjustment was performed according to the instruction.

Results. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 81 (88.0%) of 92 patients; 30 (32.6%) AEs were grade 3–4. Toxicity-related dose reduction of cabozantinib was required in 28 (30.4%), treatment interruption in 15 (16.3%), and discontinuation in 2 (2.2%) patients. The most common AEs were hypertension (69 patients, 75.0%), asthenia (47 patients, 51.1%), diarrhea (43 patients, 46.7%), and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (43 patients, 46.7%). The most common severe AEs were: arterial hypertension (17 patients, 18.5%), diarrhea (6 patients, 6.5%), and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (2 patients, 2.2%). The most frequent laboratory abnormalities during therapy were elevated serum transaminases (33 patients, 35.9%), anemia (13 patients, 14.1%), and thrombocytopenia (10 patients, 10.9%). No previously unreported AEs or laboratory abnormalities were observed. There was a significant increase in progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.0–5.9; p=0.046) and overall survival (hazard ratio 3.0; 95% confidence interval 1.2–8.3; p<0.025) in patients with treatment-related arterial hypertension.

Conclusion. The observational study confirmed the acceptable safety profile of cabozantinib in the first and subsequent lines of treatment in mRCC patients. No new safety signals were identified. Treatment-related arterial hypertension may be a favorable predictor of survival.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):221-228
pages 221-228 views
Hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine as the drug of choice for the prevention of paraprosthetic seromas in breast reconstructive surgery: A retrospective study
Khodyrev S.A., Shabaev R.M., Kolyadina I.V., Starokon P.M., Levchuk A.L., Samoylenko V.M.

Background. The most common complication in breast reconstructive surgery using silicone implants after radical treatment for neoplasms is long-lasting lymphorrhea after the resection stage, which threatens the development of postoperative complications. The improvement of the surgical technique of reconstructive and reconstructive operations on the mammary gland does not allow to exclude tissue injury with the formation of a cavity, into which foreign materials (mesh endoprosthesis, silicone implant) are subsequently installed, which are one of the main factors in the formation of seroma. Optimization of pharmacotherapy support in the early postoperative period allows to minimize the manifestations of lymphorrhea and serogenesis, to improve the quality of life of patients.

Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of the treatment of 75 patients who underwent reconstructive breast surgery in the combined and complex treatment of breast cancer was carried out. The patients were divided into two representative groups depending on the intake of hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine, a pyrimidine-type drug. At the same time, in one of the groups, hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine was prescribed in accordance with the instructions for the use of this drug in order to optimize the wound process and prevent purulent-inflammatory disorders in the early postoperative period.

Results. In group 1 patients taking hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine, there was a decrease in the duration of lymphorrhea by 2 times from 5.4 days (group 2) to 2.6 days after surgery. In addition, no cases of paraprosthetic seroma formation were recorded in group 1, while puncture management of paraprosthetic lymphocele was performed in 16 patients of group 2.

Conclusion. The inclusion of hydroxyethyldimethyldihydropyrimidine in the pharmacotherapy of maintenance in the early postoperative period in the study group of patients made it possible to significantly reduce the duration and volume of lymphorrhea, remove trapping drains from the paraprosthetic space earlier, prevent the formation of paraprosthetic seroma and the development of other, more formidable complications (suppuration, capsular contracture, silicone implant extrusion).

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):214-220
pages 214-220 views
The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with primary resectable pancreatic cancer: A retrospective cohort study
Khatkov I.E., Semenov N.N., Izrailov R.E., Efanov M.G., Dalgatov K.D., Zhukova L.G.

Background. Currently available data on the efficacy and indications for neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with primary resectable pancreatic cancer are contradictory and not clearly defined.

Aim. To conduct a comparative assessment of the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and primary surgical treatment followed by adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with primary resectable pancreatic cancer.

Materials and methods. In our study, the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was retrospectively evaluated in 45 patients and in 153 patients with primary surgical treatment and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy.

Results. With a median follow-up of 41.7 months. Both, recurrence free survival in the group of patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgical treatment (n=33; 73%) and in the group with surgical treatment and subsequent adjuvant chemotherapy (13.9 and 19.5 months; p=0.35) and overall survival (28.4 months vs 33.7 months; p=0.29) were no different. The CA level of 19.9>500 IU/ml in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group was observed in 20 (44.4%) patients. At the same time, surgical treatment was performed only in 11 (55%) patients. At the same time, at the CA 19.9 level <500 IU/ml, at the end of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgical treatment was not performed in only 3 (12%) patients (p=0.005).

Conclusion. The long-term results of treatment of patients with primary resectable pancreatic cancer, whose first stage was neoadjuvant chemotherapy, practically do not differ from the group whose treatment began with surgery. Treatment of patients with an initially high (>500 IU/ml) level of CA 19.9 is preferable to start with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients who may have doubts about the likelihood of adjuvant chemotherapy (general condition, social adaptation, place of residence), it is also preferable to start treatment with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It is necessary to change the algorithm of examination of patients, especially those with a level of CA 19.9>500 IU/ml, to exclude a greater prevalence, for example, performing diagnostic laparoscopy to exclude metastases in the peritoneum.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):236-240
pages 236-240 views
Clinical significance of the pathological type of tumor in common forms of ovarian cancer: A retrospective study
Zhurman V.N.

Background. Epithelial forms of ovarian cancer account for up to 90% of all ovarian malignancies. Epithelial forms of ovarian cancer are classified according to the WHO criteria of 2014 into several types: the most common are serous carcinomas (70%), mucinous carcinomas (3%), endometrioid tumors (10%), light cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, mixed and undifferentiated carcinomas are rare.

Aim. To study the overall survival and progression-free survival depending on the stage of the disease, the pathological type of tumor and the degree of differentiation of tumor cells.

Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of the treatment of 467 patients with stage IIIC–IVB ovarian cancer in the Primorsky Regional Oncological Dispensary for the period from 2003 to 2021 was carried out. The obtained parameters were processed using standard statistical analysis methods using the IBM SPSS Statistics 26 program.

Results. The overall results showed that the most favorable course of stage IIIC–IVB ovarian cancer has a serous type of ovarian cancer, probably due to its sensitivity to chemotherapy and aggressive surgical tactics. Patients with a mutation in the BRCA1/2 genes have a better prognosis in overall survival rates. BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with an improved response to chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs.

Conclusion. The analysis made it possible to determine the most favorable prognostic factors for advanced stages of ovarian cancer, when comparing the groups of high-grade and low-grade III–IV stage serous carcinoma, it was noted that the median overall survival, depending on the histological type, is better in the group of patients with low-grade III–IV stage serous carcinoma. When comparing, depending on the timing of the operation performed, it can be noted that the median overall survival and median progression-free survival rates are better in the group of patients who received primary cytoreductive surgery.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):241-243
pages 241-243 views
Nutritional support for primary patients with esophageal cancer (analytical review)
Obukhova O.A., Kurmukov I.A., Abu-Khaidar O.B.

In order to study the feasibility and safety of nutritional support in primary esophageal cancer, an analysis of publications on the topic in the medical databases e-Library, PubMed, Medline was performed. Based on the data obtained, it is shown how anorexia-cachexia syndrome is diagnosed in patients with primary esophageal cancer, which transforms into sarcopenia. Nutritional support provided in the perioperative period improves the immediate and long-term results of surgical treatment. When conducting systemic antitumor treatment, nutritional support is considered as an integral component of complex therapy, allowing to achieve the best results at all stages of the treatment process, as well as after its completion. The drug of choice is enteral nutrition with a high protein and energy content.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):244-249
pages 244-249 views
Experience of surgical treatment of hemangioma of the spleen. A clinical case
Chekini A.K., Novikov D.V., Avturkhanov T.M., Mkrtumyan R.A., Novikova A.O.

Focal mass lesions of the spleen are considered rare. The mass lesions of the spleen usually include malignant and benign tumors, true, false, and parasitic cysts, abscesses, hematomas, and spleen infarctions. Hemangiomas are considered the most common benign neoplasms. Abscesses or spleen infarctions have severe symptoms, pronounced laboratory test changes, disturb the patient and force him to seek help. In contrast, small benign and sometimes malignant neoplasms are asymptomatic for a long time and often are incidental findings. A 38-year-old patient with splenomegaly was admitted to the thoracic surgery center of the Private healthcare institution, Central Clinical Hospital "RZD-Medicine". Abdominal computed tomography showed an enlarged spleen. The blood tests were within the reference values. Given the large size of the spleen, the need to exclude marginal zone lymphoma, clinical presentation, and the risk of spleen rupture, a splenectomy was performed.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):250-252
pages 250-252 views
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin after cardiac transplantation: a clinical case
Ognerubov N.A., Ognerubova M.A.

Background. Solid organ transplantation recipients have a high risk of non-melanoma skin tumors. Patients after heart transplantation are prone to a higher incidence of malignant skin tumors due to intensive immunosuppressive therapy. The most common histological type is squamous cell carcinoma, followed by basal cell carcinoma. These tumors have a more aggressive clinical course, including the frequency of recurrence and metastasis, and a tendency to multifocal lesions.

Materials and methods. We present a clinical case of primary multiple squamous cell carcinoma with metastatic lesions of regional lymph nodes in a patient after heart transplantation.

Results. A 67-year-old patient underwent an orthotopic heart transplant in September 2018 for ischemic cardiomyopathy. Subsequently, triple immunosuppressive therapy was administered, including tacrolimus combined with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. In May 2022, a solid tumor with ulceration occurred on the skin of the right scapular region. After some time, similar tumors appeared on the skin of the temporal region on the left, the posterior surface of the auricle and the parietal region on the left. The patient later found a solid, painless tumor on the left jaw angle. As a part of the examination in the oncology dispensary, a biopsy of the scapular skin tumor, scrapings from tumors, and aspiration biopsy of the submandibular lymph nodes were performed. Histological and cytological studies of all neoplasms showed squamous cell keratinizing cancer with metastases to the submandibular lymph nodes. Additional examination methods showed no signs of progression. The diagnosis was made: primary multiple synchronous skin cancer: right scapular area, stage III, cT3N0M0; left parietal area, stage II, cT2N0M0; occipital area, stage I, cT1N0M0; left auricle, stage IV, cT1N2M0. Considering the localization of tumors, surgical treatment was performed, including of excision of tumors in the scapular and parietal regions. Radiation therapy was performed on lymph nodes with metastases. After 6 months, a tumor recurrence was detected in the irradiation area.

Conclusion. After heart transplantation, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is common. Usually, it affects the scalp and neck with metastases to the regional lymph nodes and is prone to recurrence. The primary treatment method is surgical and radiation therapy.

Journal of Modern Oncology. 2023;25(2):253-256
pages 253-256 views

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